Certainly in Germany, Civil Protection, the federal (“Bund”) and the regional (“Länder”) mechanisms in Civil Protection rely on volunteer members, carrying out their duty next to their regular day-to-day work. In case of prolonged crisis, those entities could personally be affected - the personnel roster of Civil Protection organizations could break down. In this case, the proper functioning of vital aspects of Civil Protection and assistance cannot be guaranteed anymore.
Over the last years, professional emergency management entities have increasingly witnessed citizens without any operational experience (ad-hoc-volunteers), who would like to support them. In order to effectively integrate these new and sometimes volatile resources, responders need to be trained and ad-hoc volunteers need to be integrated as seen fit. To do so, a major rethinking of the “traditional” manners and procedures that have been in place sometimes for decades is needed.